第83回セミナー

日時: 2019年12月5日 (木) 13:00 – 14:30
場所: 電気通信大学 東3号館(学内マップ:27番) 最後のページ 306室
講師: Nguyen Vu Trung (The Vice Director, National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Vietnam)
司会: 孫 光鎬 助教
題目: Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam: Application and Future Collaboration
概要: Biomedical engineers work at the intersection of engineering, the life sciences and healthcare. The BME take principles from applied science (including mechanical, electrical, chemical and computer engineering) and physical sciences (including physics, chemistry and mathematics) and apply them to biology and medicine. Although the human body is a more complex system than even the most sophisticated machine, many of the same concepts that go into building and programming a machine can be applied to biological structures and diagnostic and therapeutic tools. A biomedical engineer is someone who analyzes and designs solutions to problems in biology and medicine, with the goal of improving the quality and effectiveness of patient care.
There is an increasing demand for biomedical engineers, due largely because of the general shift towards the everyday use of machinery and technology in all aspects of life. Biological knowledge combined with engineering principles to address medical needs has greatly contributed to the development of both life-changing and life-saving concepts and products such as: artificial organs; pacemakers; artificial hips; surgical robots; advanced prosthetics; and kidney dialysis. Even, for some kinds of diseases like infectious diseases, there are still a lot of needs for the BME to apply the technology for diagnosis, care and treament for patients. Since infectious diseases progress fast and have some simptom changes over the time. In addition, the possibility of transmission make the close contack risky for medical staffs and others. The application of non-contact approches could be of trend for the future in medical settings and home care.
Further more, in many LMIC, the medical training programs still lack the subjects of BME, so that later on, in health care settings, even in the big or national hospitals, there are not many biomedical engineers to take care of the machines, equipments.
In the future, the collaboration between the medical staffs and the biomedical engineers is impactul association not only for training, research but also for health care practices in order to bring the advances in technology for patients and community.
参加: 参加費無料,予約不要
問合せ 山野井 佑介,Tel: 042-443-5403,  e-mail: yamanoi@hi.mce.uec.ac.jp

 

82nd Seminar

Date and Time:  November 29 (Fri.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Multimedia Hall #306, Building E-3(Map No.27), UEC
Speaker: Naoki TANAKA (Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Toyo University)
Chair: Prof. Yoshiki KASHIMORI
Title: Causality indices and their application to biological systems
Abstract: 因果関係の概念は科学的研究にとって重要な概念の一つです.因果関係は,通常,緻密な計画に基づいた実験によって明らかにされます.一方,計画的な実験が容易でない場合もあります.近年,計測データ(特に時系列データ)のみに基づいて因果関係を推定する研究が盛んに行われています.セミナーでは,代表的な因果性指標であるGranger因果性,Transfer entropy, Convergent cross mapping 等を概観し,これらをヒトおよびマウス大脳皮質のネットワーク解析や脳血液量・心拍数・血圧等の揺らぎ関係解析等に応用した例を紹介します.

81st Seminar

Date and Time: November 28 (Thu.), 2019, 13:30 – 15:00
Place: Multimedia Hall #306, Building E-3(Map No.27), UEC
Speaker: Gerard Marriott (Professor, Department of Bioengineering, UC-Berkeley(University of California, Berkeley), USA)
Chair: Assoc. Prof. Shojiro MAKI
Title: Engineering new hydrogels for multiplexed detection of disease biomarkers and for passive release of medications
Abstract: I will present new findings from projects related to the engineering of hydrogels to detect disease biomarkers for at-home diagnostic devices, and for passive and long-term release of drugs to manage diseases of the eye. First, I introduce a novel bead-based immunocomplex entrapment assay (ICEA) and a related enzyme-linked ICEA (ELICEA) that allow for rapid and selective sequestration and entrapment of disease biomarkers with minimal needs for user-intervention and equipment. For example, in ICEA, target molecule-entrapment is achieved simply by injecting a bond-cleaving buffer, while in ELICEA, one also injects a chromogenic substrate. In both cases, sedimented beads generate brilliantly colored or fluorescent signals whose intensity correlates linearly with the amount of biomarker in the sample. In proof-of-practice studies, we used ICEA and ELICEA platforms to rapidly detect the kappa-light chain, a biomarker of the Bence-Jones disease, which we detected at a concentration that would correspond to an early stage of the disease. We also show the ICEA and ELICEA platforms can be used for multiplexed detection of biomarkers within individual beads. In the second part of my presentation, I will discuss a new type of hydrogel for long-term release of drugs to the eye, including glaucoma. In these studies, we use betadine, an FDA-approved medication to bring about specific chemical reactions in the eye that lead to the formation of drug-entrapped hydrogel from fluid precursors. Further optimization of the composition and structure of the hydrogel is used to delay the rate of drug release allowing passive and sustained release of the medication for up to 30 days. At the end of the therapy, the hydrogel is removed from the conjunctiva simply by bathing the eye in a dilute solution of cysteamine, which is also approved by the FDA to manage ocular conditions.

80th Seminar

Date and Time:  October 18 (Fri.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Multimedia Hall #306, Building E-3(Map No.27), UEC
Speaker: Takahiro Ushida (Professor, Multidisciplinary Pain Center and Institute of Physical Fitness, Aichi Medical University)
Chair: Assoc. Prof. Norihiro KOIZUMI
Title: Musculoskeletal pain and brain function changes
Abstract: 痛みは脳で経験する不快な感覚と情動体験であると定義されています.すぐに治る痛みであれば日常生活への影響は少ないですが、それが治らずに長引き治療抵抗性であるなどすると直接的な局所の障害にとどまらず,痛みに伴う身体の障害が疼痛行動も相まって我々の生活を大きく変えてしまいます.
特に我々は非常に治療に難渋する複合性局所疼痛症候群(以下CRPS)症例に着目し,その病態メカニズムについて研究を行ってきました.これまでの研究では,病期の長いCRPS患者では対側の視床の活動性が低下すること,疼痛部位に機械的な痛み刺激を加えた際にも視床の活動性の亢進が見られないことが明らかにされてきています.一方これらの患者では疼痛部位を触られているビデオを見る事で仮想的に痛みを経験させるだけでも非常に強い不快情動と前帯状回の活動を生じさせる事,アイトラッキングメガネを用いた研究ではこれらの患者では疼痛部位を視認せず避けたり,無視する傾向が観察されています.すなわち痛みは脳で記憶されたものでもあり,これらに伴う自動思考から生じる疼痛行動も2次性,3次性に身体機能障害(不動からの廃用や関節拘縮,筋萎縮など)を引き起こすことになると考えられます.近年,帯状回から脊髄後角への神経伝達経路も指摘されてきており,情動系が感覚に影響していくことについても考慮する必要があります.
我々は基礎研究で不動化モデル動物を作成し,廃用に伴う中枢神経系の機能変化について注目し研究を進めてきましたが,廃用動物では脳の感覚野のみならず運動系でも変化が生じるという報告もあります.従って今後は脳機能制御という面からの治療戦略を考えていく必要があります.

 

79th Seminar

Date and Time:  September 9 (Tue.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Multimedia Hall #306, Building E-3(Map No.27), UEC
Speaker: Takashi SHINOZAKI, (Research Scientist, CiNet(Center for Information and Neural Networks), Osaka University)
Chair: Prof. Hayaru SHOUNO
Title: Interpretation of a convolutional neural network as a brain-like information processing system
Abstract: 深層学習の基盤技術のひとつである畳み込みニューラルネットワーク(Convolutional Neural Network, 以下CNN)は脳における情報処理機構をヒントに構成されたもので、従来の機械学習では困難であった、超多次元信号の解析可能な次元数への縮減を実現し、これによって人工知能技術の様々な対象への応用を可能としてきました。本講演ではCNNの内部動作を、脳における視覚情報処理と対比させることによって、その情報処理過程における意義について明らかにします。さらに超大規模なCNNの実現のために、より脳に近い、逆行伝播誤差を用いない学習法についても紹介します。

 

78th Seminar

Date and Time:  June 14 (Fri.), 2019, 15:00 – 16:30
Place: Meeting Room #802, Building E-4(Map No.11), UEC
Speaker: Atsu AIBA (Professor, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo)
Chair: Assoc. Prof. Shinji MATSUDA
Title: Generation and analysis of model animals for neuropsychiatry diseases
Abstract: CRISPR/Cas9システムを用いたゲノム編集技術により、動物に導入する遺伝子変異の種類や変異を導入する動物種の制約が大幅に少なくなりました。我々の研究室では2種の遺伝性疾患、22q11.2欠失症候群および結節性硬化症に対するモデル動物の作製と解析を行っています。22q11.2欠失症候群は、ヒト22番染色体の微細欠失が原因で、患者の多くでは45の遺伝子の欠失が生じ、約30%が統合失調症を発症します。また、結節性硬化症は、TSC1もしくはTSC2遺伝子の変異が原因で、細胞増殖・成長に関与するmTOR経路の活性化が生じ、高頻度で自閉スペクトラム症等の精神疾患を発症します。本講演では、変異動物を用いた精神疾患モデル動物の現状と課題について議論したいと考えています。

 

77th Seminar

Date and Time:  May 31 (Fri.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting Room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Satoshi OOTA(Senior Research Scientist, Center of Advanced Photonics, Image Processing Research Team, RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research))
Chair: Assoc. Prof. Tadashi YAMAZAKI
Title: Human augmentation by cognitive and motor intervention using endoskeleton robot suits (StillSuit) and high-precision augmented/virtual reality (LVAR)
Abstract: 私たちは産業技術総合研究所との共同研究において、認知・運動介入を実現するためのツールとして,高精度拡張/仮想現実(LVAR)と統合された内骨格ロボットスーツ(StillSuit)を開発しています。その目的は,生物学的に合理的な介入による認知・運動機能の強化と回復(生物学的な人間拡張)をもって,日本の直面する超高齢化問題の解決に貢献することです。そのためには、脳機能と運動機能の統合的な理解が欠かせません。内骨格ロボットスーツ開発のための基礎データの収集の一環として,遺伝学と生体力学を組み合わせた新しい枠組みと,モデル生物から得られるディープデータをヒトに外挿する方法について紹介します。また将来展望として、脳計算モデルと神経筋骨格モデルを結合する手法についても議論したいと思います。

 

76th Seminar

Date and Time:  May 10 (Fri.), 2019, 16:00 – 17:00
Place: Meeting Room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Zineb ABDERRAHMANE (École Nationale Supérieure d’Hydrauliqur, Blida, Algeria.)
Chair: Prof. Yoichi MIYAWAKI
Title: Haptic recognition of daily-life objects capable of dealing with data scarcity
Abstract: Recognizing surrounding objects is an important skill for the autonomy of robots performing in daily-life. Nowadays robots are equipped with sophisticated sensors imitating human sensing capabilities such as touch. This allowed to integrate information about object texture, compliance and material ensuing from robot-object physical interaction to the recognition . In this thesis, we aim to exploit machine learning techniques to perform haptic recognition of daily life objects. The main challenge faced in this work is the scarcity of haptic training data for all daily-life objects. This is due to the continuously growing number of objects and the effort and time needed by the robot to physically interact with each object for data collection. We solve this problem by developing a haptic recognition framework capable of performing Zero-shot, One-shot and Multi-shot Learning. We extend this framework by integrating vision to enhance robots performance.

 

75th Seminar

Date and Time:  April 22 (Mon.), 2019, 13:30 – 15:00
Place: Meeting Room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Seiji ONO (Associate Professor, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
Chair: Prof. Hidetaka OKADA
Title: Brain functions of athletes predicted by eye movements
Abstract: 様々なスポーツ場面では、ボールや相手の動きなど視覚対象に応じて適切な運動を実行する必要性があり、視覚を通して得られる感覚情報は運動の発現と調節に重要な役割を果たしています。特に、熟練した球技選手は眼や頭部の動きによる効果的な視覚探索方略を用いて適切な視覚情報を獲得していると考えられています。このような視覚に基づくアスリートの卓越した情報処理能力は如何にして実現されているのでしょうか。これまでの研究において、眼球運動は視覚情報の影響を強く受けること、またその動的特性と脳機能との関連性が明らかにされていることから、上位中枢による視覚情報処理の特徴を調べるうえで有効な指標とされています。本講演では、アスリートの持つ眼球と頭部の動きを制御する脳機能の特徴についての研究を紹介します。

74th Seminar

Date and Time: March 8 (Fri.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting room #802, Building E-4, UEC
Speaker: Zoltan Ungvari (Professor, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA)
Chair: Prof. Kazuto Masamoto
Title: Aging-induced neurovascular dysfunction: novel mechanisms
Abstract: Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow via neurovascular coupling has an essential role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function. In advanced age increased oxidative stress and cerebromicrovascular endothelial dysfunction impair neurovascular coupling, likely contributing to age-related decline of higher cortical functions. There are suggestions in the literature and new data will be presented that in aged laboratory rodents neurovascular coupling and endothelium-dependent cerebromicrovascular dilation can be rescued, which represents a potential therapeutic target for the promotion of healthy brain aging. In particular, the potential role of oxidative stress, cellular energetic dysfunction, neuroendocrine changes and cellular senescence in neurovascular dysfunction will be discussed. (Dr. Ungvari is a biogerontologist and vascular pathophysiologist who is an internationally recognized expert in the field of vascular aging. His research focuses on cellular and molecular mechanisms of vascular aging, microvascular contributions to age-related cognitive decline and developing new therapeutic approaches to extend cardiovascular/cerebrovascular health span.)