75th Seminar

Date and Time:  April 22 (Mon.), 2019, 13:30 – 15:00
Place: Meeting Room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Seiji ONO (Associate Professor, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
Chair: Prof. Hidetaka OKADA
Title: Brain functions of athletes predicted by eye movements
Abstract: 様々なスポーツ場面では、ボールや相手の動きなど視覚対象に応じて適切な運動を実行する必要性があり、視覚を通して得られる感覚情報は運動の発現と調節に重要な役割を果たしています。特に、熟練した球技選手は眼や頭部の動きによる効果的な視覚探索方略を用いて適切な視覚情報を獲得していると考えられています。このような視覚に基づくアスリートの卓越した情報処理能力は如何にして実現されているのでしょうか。これまでの研究において、眼球運動は視覚情報の影響を強く受けること、またその動的特性と脳機能との関連性が明らかにされていることから、上位中枢による視覚情報処理の特徴を調べるうえで有効な指標とされています。本講演では、アスリートの持つ眼球と頭部の動きを制御する脳機能の特徴についての研究を紹介します。

74th Seminar

Date and Time: March 8 (Fri.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting room #802, Building E-4, UEC
Speaker: Zoltan Ungvari (Professor, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA)
Chair: Prof. Kazuto Masamoto
Title: Aging-induced neurovascular dysfunction: novel mechanisms
Abstract: Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow via neurovascular coupling has an essential role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function. In advanced age increased oxidative stress and cerebromicrovascular endothelial dysfunction impair neurovascular coupling, likely contributing to age-related decline of higher cortical functions. There are suggestions in the literature and new data will be presented that in aged laboratory rodents neurovascular coupling and endothelium-dependent cerebromicrovascular dilation can be rescued, which represents a potential therapeutic target for the promotion of healthy brain aging. In particular, the potential role of oxidative stress, cellular energetic dysfunction, neuroendocrine changes and cellular senescence in neurovascular dysfunction will be discussed. (Dr. Ungvari is a biogerontologist and vascular pathophysiologist who is an internationally recognized expert in the field of vascular aging. His research focuses on cellular and molecular mechanisms of vascular aging, microvascular contributions to age-related cognitive decline and developing new therapeutic approaches to extend cardiovascular/cerebrovascular health span.)

73rd Seminar

Date and Time: February 22 (Fri.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Xiaorong GUAN (Associate Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST), China)
Chair: Assoc. Prof. Yinlai JIANG
Title: Review of Wearable Human Extremity Exoskeleton and Research on Crucial Technologies
Abstract: Nowadays, Wearable Human Extremity Exoskeleton (WHEE) is well known and attractive, and as a result, many scholars and engineers have thrown themselves into the research and development of WHEE. While up to now, few successful WHEE products have been exploited. Therefore, a question rises naturally, and what are the critical issues leading to the tough emergence of WHEE product? The question is tried to be replied here from the aspect of technology. The current presentation is mainly divided into two parts. In the first half, the research activities on WHEE are reviewed, which include the achievements for both strengthening the healthy population on power as well as motion and assisting the disabled or ailing population in medical treating, recovering and acting in daily life. Additionally, the key technologies, such as biomimetic structure design, motion intention prediction, control strategy, etc., are outlined, which are primarily responsible for the logy advancement of WHEE. Approximately in the past six years, massive work related to WHEE, especially for the healthy population, has been carried out theoretically, numerically and experimentally by our team in NUST, P.R. China. Hence, several of them are demonstrated selectively in the following second half. Initially, the way to design biomimetic structure established by us is introduced, which is significant for motion feasibility, security of WHEE as well as dead-weight optimization. And then, the control schemes adopted by us are illustrated, which are crucial to the motion flexibility and assistance efficiency. Ultimately, the WHEE prototypes built by us are shown, which have been tested and used to validate the methods, technologies already achieved by us.

72nd Seminar

Date and Time: January 25 (Fri.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Shinji HAMANISHI (Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sendai National College of Technology, Natori)
Chair: Prof. Takuji KOIKE
Title: From the cradle to the grand-generation —applications of auditory mechanism to medicine, well-being and sports—
Abstract: この世に生を受けた私たちは,誰もが健康に育ち,若々しく年を重ね,そして豊かな知識と経験を持ちながら人生を楽しみたいと願っています.そのような人生を過ごすために,私たちの体は,実に様々な高度な機能を協調させながらサポートしてくれています.本セミナーではその中でも“聴覚”に着目します.自身で聴こえを意思表示することができない赤ちゃんに対し,聴こえをどのように診断するか?子供から年配まで様々な世代で愛好者が多い剣道が聴覚に及ぼす意外な影響とは?そして良好なコミュニケーションを提供してくれる新しい補聴器とは?これまでの自身の研究成果をご紹介しながら,ゆりかごからグランド・ジェネレーションまで人生を充実したものにするための“聴覚”の可能性を一緒に考えていきたいと思います.

71st Seminar

Date and Time: January 23 (Wed.), 2019, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Dai WATANABE (Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University)
Chair: Prof. Shigeru TANAKA
Title: Biological approach to understanding the basis of neuronal connectivity for decision making and communication
Abstract: 脳皮質-基底核神経回路は様々な高次脳機能発現に中心的な役割を果たしていると考えられていますが、詳細なメカニズムについて不明な点が多い。その一因として、大脳皮質および基底核が極めて多様な神経細胞サブタイプから構成されており、さらに各神経細胞の興奮性や回路連絡は一定ではなく可塑的に変化することが挙げられます。したがって、その回路機構を理解するためには、単一細胞の精度で神経活動を計測し、さらに可塑性関連細胞内シグナルの動態やそれに伴う神経情報の推移を捉えることが重要です。本セミナーでは、大脳皮質-基底核神経回路の機能解析を目的として開発したイメージング技術とともに、私達がこれまでに進めてきた意思決定・意思伝達に関する知見について紹介します。

70th Seminar

Event for celebrating UEC’s centenary
Date and Time: December 20 (Thu.), 2018, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Daisuke HOSHINO (Associate Professor, Bioscience and Technology Program, Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications)
Chair: Prof. Yutaka KANO
Title: Metabolic responses and adaptations of skeletal muscles to exercises
Abstract: 定期的な運動は,骨格筋の糖・脂質代謝能力の向上や筋量の増加などの適応を引き起こします.骨格筋の適応は,一過性運動後の遺伝子発現の変化(転写制御)やタンパク質合成の活性化(翻訳制御)が繰り返されることによって引き起こされると考えられています.本講演では,運動による骨格筋の適応をミトコンドリアの変化に着目して報告します.さらに,一過性の筋収縮後の代謝変化をメタボローム,トランスクリプトーム解析により明らかにした研究を報告します.

69th Seminar

Event for celebrating UEC’s centenary
Date and Time: November 1 (Thu.), 2018, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Kazutaka IKEDA (Department Chair, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Project Leader, Addictive Substance Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science)
Chair: Assoc. Prof. Shojiro MAKI
Title: Identification of mechanisms underlying addictive substance actions and its clinical application
Abstract: 依存性薬物は、依存症の原因となるとともに、鎮痛薬や睡眠薬、発達障害治療薬などとして医療に役立っています。依存性薬物の脳への作用機序を明らかにすることで、脳内報酬系、鎮痛経路、覚醒・睡眠機構、行動制御などの脳機能の理解が分子レベルで進むとともに、医療の向上に繋がると期待されます。講演では特に、中枢薬開発における60年ぶりの大発見と言われているケタミンによる難治性うつ病の治療効果や、鎮痛薬作用個人差の遺伝的メカニズム、カリウムチャネル阻害による依存症治療の可能性などについて最新の研究成果を紹介します。

68th Seminar

Event for celebrating UEC’s centenary
Date and Time: October 19 (Fri.), 2018, 14:40 – 16:10
Place: Meeting room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Nozomi NAOI, (Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Linguistics, Division of Arts and Sciences, College of Liberal Arts, International Christian University)
Chair: Prof. Yukio YAMADA
Title: Study of brain function development during perinatal period using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)
Abstract: functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a technique to measure the relative changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations of cerebral blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements by fNIRS are non-invasive, low restriction of movement for participants, as well as being noiseless. Therefore, fNIRS is suitable for measurements for infants, and fNIRS experimental data has been accumulated recently. In this talk, I will review a study of evaluating brain function development related to sense processing for visual, auditory and tactile senses in newborn babies, and a study of comparing functional connectivity of the brain activities with brain regions related to acoustic stimuli processing between full-term and preterm infants. Finally, I would like to discuss the brain function development during the perinatal period.

67th

Date and Time: August 23 (Thu.), 2018, 13:00 – 14:30
Place: Meeting room #301, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Jun SUZURIKAWA, (Chief, Advanced Assistive Technology Section, Department of Assistive Technology, Research Institute of the National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities)
Chair: Assis. Prof. Shunta TOGO
Title: Secrets for development of assistive devices learning from user-participating workshops
Abstract: 福祉機器の開発は難しいとよく言われます.私自身,福祉機器開発に関わる研究者として,また,ユーザ当事者として,日々身に染みて実感しています.一方,現場の声をよく聞こう,といった攻略法も,漠然としていて実践が難しい・・・.そんな問題意識から,福祉機器開発の何がどう難しいのか?現場の声ってそもそも何?ということを,デザインワークショップの実践と分析を通して考察してきました.本セミナーでは,設計工学やデザイン理論における知見の助けを借りながら,これまでの取り組みを,定量的な視点を交えつつご紹介します.こうすれば成功する,というよりは,失敗しないためにはこうしてみては,というポイントをお伝えできればと思います.

66th

Date and Time: July 12 (Thu.), 2018, 14:40 – 16:10
Place: Meeting room #306, Building E-3, UEC
Speaker: Naohiro KON, (Project Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo)
Chair: Assis. Prof. Atsushi NAKAMURA
Title: Science of biological clock: From functions of biological clock to understanding of sleep disorder
Abstract: 私達の睡眠・覚醒リズムは約一日の生物時計 (概日時計) によって生み出されており、その基本的なメカニズムを担う時計遺伝子の発見は、2017年のノーベル医学生理学賞の対象となりました。本分野は遺伝子と行動の因果関係が明瞭な神経科学領域であり、現状は社会応用への期待が高まっている研究フェーズです。私達はこれまで、概日時計の周期や振幅、時刻を制御する種々の化合物を見出し、時計の分子メカニズムを解明してきました。加えて本セミナーでは、非24時間睡眠覚醒症候群を紹介します。本患者は、日毎に約一時間ずつ睡眠覚醒サイクルが遅れていきますが、この病態に酷似した表現型を示す動物がヒト以外に一種のみ知られています。私達は、カリフォルニアマウス (Peromyscus californicus, 一夫一妻性げっ歯類) の日本初のクローズドコロニーを樹立し、睡眠障害変異体Free runnerの解析を進めているところです。

References: (1) de Groot & Rusak. Neurosci Lett. 327, 203-7 (2002). (2) Kon et al. Nat Cell Biol. 10, 1463-9 (2008). (3) Kon et al. Genes Dev. 28, 1101-10 (2014).